Généalogie du logo

Histoire des marques d’identités et commerciales du néolithique à aujourd’hui

Durée approximative

Version longue : 2 heures & environ 120 slides.
Version courte : 1 heure & environ 60-80 slides.

Public

Étudiants & professionnels du design graphique, amateurs éclairés, chercheurs.

Résumé

Le Design Graphique est une discipline professionnelle relativement récente, pourtant si la séparation entre la conception et la réalisation s’est opérée progressivement autour de la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, les productions & supports de cette pratique connaissent une histoire bien antérieure. Parmi les histoires du livre, de l’affiche, de la typographie, il convient de noter l’absence d’une histoire des Logos.

En prenant appui dans un premier temps sur une recherche historique du Logo tel qu’on le connaît, afin de remonter les traces des emblèmes et marques graphiques l’ayant influencé, nous nous proposons dans un deuxième temps de mettre en lumière les constituantes communes à cette généalogie : territorialité, narration & filiation.

Enfin, dans un troisième temps nous tenterons de répondre à la question : “Un Logo sert-il à se démarquer ?”. Les marques d’identitées (ou emblèmes), comme commerciales, ont été construites selon une syntaxe graphique permettant à la fois la reconnaissance et l’inscription dans une globalité. Au même sens que le langage vise à l’expression et non à la singularité via la construction d’une langue, la marque d’identité, puis commerciale, s’ancre dans cette logique. En devenant Logo, la marque perd de sa syntaxe générative pour devenir un système de style graphique, chaque secteur économique et culturel typant sa marque selon des normes stylistiques aux dénotations informelles partagées.

Précédentes conférences

  • 16 mars 2019 : ENSAAMA, Oliver de Serres, Paris
  • 24 mars 2019 : Signe, Chaumont, en partenariat avec le Lycée Charles de Gaulle de Chaumont.

Plan

  • Présentation personnelle
  • Qu’est-ce qu’un logo ?
  • Pourquoi préférer le terme de marque ?
  • Typologie des marques : marque d’identité & commerciale
  • Fonctions des marques
    • d’identification (ou symbolique)
    • de possession (ou de droit d’usage)
    • auctoriale (ou de production)
    • de certification
    • de validation
    • apotropaïque
  • Panorama historique
    • Préhistoire
    • Antiquité : tituli picti, tamgas, christogrammes, marquages au fer.
    • Moyen Age : kamons, héraldique, vexillologie, signatures, marques d’artisans (marchands & maçons, hausmark), siglas poveiras, poinçons & filigranes)
    • Renaissance : marques d’imprimeurs
    • Temps modernes : estampilles, monogrammes
    • Période contemporaine : monogrammes de la Sécession viennoise, premier modernisme (Bauhaus, de Stijl, Constructivisme), Wilhelm Deffke, Second modernisme (Style international).
    • Période post-moderne : Logo système, système de logo, logo animé.
  • Caractéristiques
    • L’empreinte
    • La filiation
    • La narration
    • Le territoire
    • Le squelette
    • La contraction
  • Synthèse
    • Le logo est un signe inscrit dans un système : système constructif jusqu’aux Temps Modernes, puis système esthétique jusqu’à aujourd’hui.
    • Le logo n’a pas pour but de se démarquer mais d’être un signe reconnu et accepté parmi la concurrence.
    • Les logos contemporains tendent vers une uniformisation esthétique périodique de durée de plus en plus courte. Ou bien ils s’incrivent dans une démarche graphique plus ouverte (logo-système) renvoyant à une structure moins “capitaliste” de leurs organisations : commune et territoires, institutions culturelles & artistiques, géant en situation de quasi monopole (Google par ex.).

AG Fronzoni (1923-2002)

graphic designer, product designer, architect & teacher

Durée approximative

1 heure & environ 60 slides.

Public

Étudiants & professionnels du design : design graphique, design d’objet, design d’espace & scénographie), amateurs éclairés, chercheurs.

Précédente conférence

  • 20 octobre 2017 : E-ArtSup, Lyon.

Fronzoni is the maestro of Minimal design in all its forms. But, more that the man who shape objects and signs, he was a design philosopher, the Socrates of Design. This panorama show the historical and geographical environnment, and the evolution during half of a century of a man who never stopped to experiment in a sctrict, personnal and poetical vision.

History of square books

from the Antiquity till now

Durée approximative

1 heure & environ 60 slides.

Public

Étudiants & professionnels du design graphique, amateurs éclairés, chercheurs.

Square books are now quite common in today’s edition industry. But this format should be analysed as a deep evolution of the human mind. Starting from the antiquity and the birth of the codex, we will focus on the meanings and the reasons why the square format was rejected but also adored by architects, artists and graphic designers. This study, still in its writing, cross the path of the early bibles, some medieval conciderations, the blooming of the paper industry, books from the romantic era, avant-garde publication from Viennese Secession to Futurist, Swiss Graphic design books, art books, children books and more.

Graphic design history through its magazine’s issue 1

Graphic design publication were, during a century, the only source of information available for the professionnals. Based on issue 1 of a wide selection of the most important worldwide publication, we can understand how graphic design history was build month after month. Issues 1 of magazines should be concidered as a maniphesto by the editorial team: a magazine out of the publication time.

Various topics can be proposed :

  • Early Modernism publication (1924-1944)
  • Modernism publications (1944-1965)
  • House organs publications
  • Type design publications
  • Japanese graphic design magazines
  • Swiss graphic design magazines
  • Graphic design school publications

 

  • Wendingen, Netherlands, 1918 (architecture, decoration, graphic design)
  • Gebrauchsgraphik, Germany, 1924 (graphic design, type design, advertising)
  • Arts et métiers graphiques, France, 1927 (graphic design, type design, bibliophily, illustration, bookbinding, photography, etc.)
  • Graphis, Switzerland, 1944 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Open oog, Netherlands, 1946 (fine art)
  • Caractères, France, 1949 (graphic design, type design, advertising)
  • Portfolio, USA, 1950 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Caractères noël, France, 1951 (graphic design, type design, advertising)
  • Idea, Japan, 1953 (graphic design, type design, advertising)
  • Neue Grafik, Switzerland, 1958 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Graphic design, Japan, 1959 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography, illustration)
  • Pagina, Italy, 1962 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Dot Zero, USA, 1966 (graphic design, semiotic)
  • 2dimensioni, Italy, 1967 (graphic design, advertising, photography)
  • Baseline, UK, 1977 ( type design)
  • Typomondo, France, 1980 (type design, lettering)
  • Octavo 86.1, UK, 1986 (graphic design, type design)
  • Eye, UK, 1990 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Étapes graphiques, France, 1994 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Ink, France, 2006 (graphic design, type design)
  • Back cover, France, 2008 (graphic design, type design, scholar studies)
  • Optical sound, France, 2009 (fine art, music)
  • The Shelf Journal, France, 2012 (edition)
  • Apres/avant, France, 2013 (type design)
  • Pli, France, 2015 (architecture & edition)
  • La Perruque, France, 2016 (type design)
  • Back office, France, 2017 (digital design, scholar studies)

Graphic design history through its magazine’s issue 1

Graphic design publication were, during a century, the only source of information available for the professionnals. Based on issue 1 of a wide selection of the most important worldwide publication, we can understand how graphic design history was build month after month. Issues 1 of magazines should be concidered as a maniphesto by the editorial team: a magazine out of the publication time.

Various topics can be proposed :

  • Early Modernism publication (1924-1944)
  • Modernism publications (1944-1965)
  • House organs publications
  • Type design publications
  • Japanese graphic design magazines
  • Swiss graphic design magazines
  • Graphic design school publications

 

  • Wendingen, Netherlands, 1918 (architecture, decoration, graphic design)
  • Gebrauchsgraphik, Germany, 1924 (graphic design, type design, advertising)
  • Arts et métiers graphiques, France, 1927 (graphic design, type design, bibliophily, illustration, bookbinding, photography, etc.)
  • Graphis, Switzerland, 1944 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Open oog, Netherlands, 1946 (fine art)
  • Caractères, France, 1949 (graphic design, type design, advertising)
  • Portfolio, USA, 1950 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Caractères noël, France, 1951 (graphic design, type design, advertising)
  • Idea, Japan, 1953 (graphic design, type design, advertising)
  • Neue Grafik, Switzerland, 1958 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Graphic design, Japan, 1959 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography, illustration)
  • Pagina, Italy, 1962 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Dot Zero, USA, 1966 (graphic design, semiotic)
  • 2dimensioni, Italy, 1967 (graphic design, advertising, photography)
  • Baseline, UK, 1977 ( type design)
  • Typomondo, France, 1980 (type design, lettering)
  • Octavo 86.1, UK, 1986 (graphic design, type design)
  • Eye, UK, 1990 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Étapes graphiques, France, 1994 (graphic design, type design, advertising, photography)
  • Ink, France, 2006 (graphic design, type design)
  • Back cover, France, 2008 (graphic design, type design, scholar studies)
  • Optical sound, France, 2009 (fine art, music)
  • The Shelf Journal, France, 2012 (edition)
  • Apres/avant, France, 2013 (type design)
  • Pli, France, 2015 (architecture & edition)
  • La Perruque, France, 2016 (type design)
  • Back office, France, 2017 (digital design, scholar studies)

ABC Verlag, Zurich: swiss graphic design books collection

ABC Verlag (1963-1989) was a Zurich based publisher. Its main collection, edited by Konrad Baumann, is composed of 25 books that gathered the most important graphic designers as authors and contributors. During more than 30 years, ABC Verlag give us a good panorama of the evolution of the philosophy & style of swiss graphic design, from a the legacy of avant-garde to the postmodernism of the end of the century.

  • Graphic Art of a Swiss TownArmin Tschanen, 1963
  • Official Graphic Art in Switzerland, Walter Bangerter & Armin Tschanen, 1964
  • Graphic Design in Swiss IndustryHans Neuburg, 1965
  • Publicity and Graphic Design in the Chemical IndustryHans Neuburg, 1967
  • Conceptions of International ExhibitionsHans Neuburg – 1969
  • Color Sells Your PackageJean-Paul Favre, 1969
  • History of the PosterJoseph & Shizuko Müller-Brockmann, 1971
  • Basic Typography: Handbook of Technique and Design, Ruedi Rüegg & Godi Fröhlich, 1972
  • Drawing, A Creative ProcessKurt Wirth, 1974
  • Form + communicationWalter Diethelm, 1974
  • Design Concept RealisationWolfgang Schmittel, 1975
  • Signet Signal SymbolWalter Diethelm, 1976
  • Graphic Design International: Creative Work of Selected Colleges of Design from 12 Countries, Igildo G. Biesele, 1977
  • Process Visual: Development of a Corporate Identity, Wolfgang Schmittel, 1978
  • Color and CommunicationJean-Paul Favre & André November, 1979
  • Type Sign SymbolAdrian Frutiger, 1980
  • Graphic Design EducationIgildo G. Biesele, 1981
  • Visual TransformationWalter Diethelm, 1982
  • Top Graphic DesignF.H.K. Henrion, 1983
  • Swiss Sport PostersKarl Wobmann & Max Triet, 1983
  • Corporate Design International: Definition and Benefit of a Consistent Corporate Appearance, Wolfgang Schmittel – 1984
  • Political and Social Posters of SwitzerlandKarl Wobmann & Willy Rotzler, 1985
  • Experiment Design: More Creativity through Experimental Design Work — Case Studies from Practice and Training, Igildo G. Biesele 1986
  • Art & graphicsWilly Rotzler & Nathan Garamond, 1989
  • Typography: Design with LettersRuedi Rüegg, 1989